Community Participation

Before communities can effectively participate in the management of their natural resources, they must be organized.

Background
Tanzania has promoted a strong decentralization policy in which mandates and management responsibilities are devolved to lower levels of governance, bringing decision-making closer to the communities involved. In terms of water management, nine major river or lake basins were gazetted and Basin Water Boards and Basin Water Offices have been established to manage and allocate water resources. It is recognized that some of these basins are quite large and have complex water management issues. The establishment of Catchment Forums attempts to further decentralize water management to the catchment level.

Kikuletwa catchment
The Kikuletwa Catchment occupies the north western part of the Pangani River Basin and hosts a multitude of water users, from small scale subsistence farmers, to municipalities (Arusha and Moshi) and large scale export farms. Their increasing water demands are straining the catchment's already over-stretched water resources. Reconciling these demands will be one of the goals of the Kikuletwa Forum.

The reducing availability of water supplies, coupled with the increasing demand for water has resulted in numerous conflicts among water users in the Pangani Basin. Tanzania's Water Policy provides for the establishment of catchment forums, where water users can: discuss and analyze local water management issues, have a voice in the allocation of water and negotiate equitable solutions to water conflicts.

Kikuletwa catchment forum
The project piloted the establishment of four water user associations in the Kikuletwa subcatchment which have formed an apex Kikuletwa Catchment Forum for the whole sub-catchment. These institutions aim to address the many conflicts emerging in that sub-catchment.

The establishment of the Kikuletwa Catchment Forum is expected to achieve the following outcomes:
∗ To recommend to the basin water board names of person to be appointed as members of the Catchment or Sub catchment water
committee,
∗ To advice the catchment or sub-catchment water committee on different matters,
∗ To promote integrated water resources management planning.

The subsidiary roles of the forum will be;
- Promotion of enhanced dialogue, collaboration, consensus and awareness raising among WUAs onwater related issues;
- Integrating community-level, WUAs, district and regional concerns into basin-level planning;
- Lessons learned from the process of establishing Kikuletwa Catchment Forum is scaled up to strengthen national support and inform other communities, basins and countries.

Process of Establishment
The process of establishing the Kikuletwa Catchment WUAs has been a 3 stage process , which includes
development of inventories; the establishment or design of the association ; and association operationalization as follows:-

1. INVENTORY STUDIES STAGE
As a first step in developing the Kikuletwa sub-catchment WUA, the project partners in 2007/8 conducted detailed inventories to provide background information about the basin characteristics in terms of water resources and uses; organizational landscape; relevant Tanzanian policies, legislation; and comparative experiences from around the world of participatory involvement of communities in water resources management. A summary of each inventory is provided below:

a) Water Resources and Uses in Kikuletwa Catchment – This includes existing information on water yields, sources and availability in the catchment, along with available data on water abstraction in the catchment. Information also includes whether water abstraction was legally sanctioned, customary use or through illegal abstractions. The inventory tracks trends in water availability and utilization.

b) Organizational Landscape – This inventory contains information on various groups including: functional (formal) community groups (character and number), promoted by the various sector ministries and departments, of relevance for water abstraction and use; and informal (traditional) community groups (character and number) involved in water management in the catchment.

An overview of other water users in the catchment (character and number), e.g. industry, urban users, private sector is provided along with a description of governance structures of relevance to water management in the catchment. The inventory provides analysis on relations between the different and divergent water users, and insight into which groups and/or institutions are seen as legitimate and representative.

c) Policy Inventory - The water policy of 2002 is the defining framework for water management in Tanzania, however a number of other policies (and their implementation) are of relevance and are summarized in this inventory. The decentralization policy affects the mandate and structure of local authorities, which are key actors in water planning and management. The privatization and investment policies create incentives for water use, as does the irrigation, agriculture and forestry policies. An overview of these various policies and how they relate to each other (including possible anomalies and contradictions) as well as how they affect local development is a crucial requirement for the design of the catchment forum.

d. Comparative Experiences
The inventory provides aggregated information on community participation in water management from various countries. This includes: how divergent community interests can be effectively represented at a higher level; what are best practices in relating up- and downstream users within a catchment; which different interests need to be represented at a lower-level management forum; and what are roles, mandates and experiences with meso-level natural resource management fora.


2. THE ESTABLISHMENT OR DESIGN STAGE
A core team comprising membership from PBWB and SNV was formed in 2009 to facilitate the design stage. The team went through extensive coaching from experts who had experience in community participation in water resource management. The activities carried out in this stage of the process included: stakeholder consultations, establishment of a reference group to guide forum establishment, and training and formation of sub-catchment facilitation teams.

The core team conducted detailed stakeholder consultations through workshops and meetings with local government authorities including districts, municipal councils, wards and villages to collect and collate the views of stakeholders concerning the structure, roles and responsibilities of the Kikuletwa Catchment Forum or WUA.

A Reference Group was established to guide design process in terms of advising and informing the core team where necessary. The Reference Group draws its membership from the following: PBWB; Local Government Department (from the project area); Agriculture and Land Use Department; Irrigation; Energy; Water Utilities at district and Urban Levels; Natural resources and environment; Cooperatives and community development; Livestock and fisheries; and Institutional development experts.

Given the size and geographical coverage of Kikuletwa the catchment was divided into 4 sub catchments (Upper Kikuletwa; Sanya-Kware; Lower Kikuletwa; and Kikafu – Weruweru-Karanga). A sub-catchment facilitation team (SCFT) for each sub-catchment, with a membership of between 4 – 6 people, was established to facilitate stakeholders to establish WUAs and elect their interim officials. The composition of the sub-catchment facilitation teams included staff from the PBWB; District Councils and local NGOs and CSOs representing interests such as community development; natural resources and environment; irrigation; agriculture; livestock; water; public health and co-operatives.

3. OPERATIONALISATION STAGE
By the end of 2010 all the four WUAs were established and registered. Following the registration, 6 members from each of the four sub catchment WUA were trained on how to run their offices. They were also provided with working tool such as; financial record keeping documents, technical and general record keeping files and relevant acts and regulations.

In 2011 the four operating sub-catchment forums will be registered as an umbrella (apex) WUA association. Subsequently, the PBWB will monitor the performance of the Associations, continue providing support to it, distill and disseminate lessons learnt during its establishment and operations for both national application and international learning.

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