Pangani Basin (figure below) is a transboundary basin shared by Tanzania and Kenya; which covers 56,300 square kilometers where 5% of this area lies in Kenya. The Tanzanian part, there are 18 Districts falling within the administrative Regions of Manyara, Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Tanga. It includes two cities and one municipality of Arusha, Tanga and Moshi respectively.
The Basin is comprised of five sub basins; Pangani River (43,650 km2), Umba River (8,070 km2), Msangazi River (5,030 km2), Zigi and Coastal Rivers including Mkulumuzi (2,080 km2) which all independent drain to the Indian Ocean. The Pangani River Basin has two main tributaries, Kikuletwa and Ruvu Rivers, which join at Nyumba ya Mungu, a large man-made water body with a surface area of 140 km2. The highest mountain in Africa is Mt. Kilimanjaro (5,985 masl) which together with Mt. Meru (4,566 m.a.s.l) provide the source of Kikuletwa river flow, while the Ruvu, Mkomazi and Luengera Rivers drain part of Kilimanjaro, Pare and Usambara mountains and the springs emerged in Kenyan side. There are two unique lakes in the Basin namely Jipe and Chala which are Transboundary water bodies. The Basin is also endowed with high potentials for groundwater. Only 5% of all the water used in the Basin is derived from groundwater sources. Boreholes yielding >100 m3/h have been drilled in the Kahe plains. The main economic activities in the basin are small scale fishing, tourism, hydroelectricity power production, mining, industry and irrigation. The Basin also comprises various National Parks, Game Reserve and Controlled Areas for wildlife as well as tourism like Kilimanjaro, Arusha and Mkomazi National Parks; and Amani Nature Reserve. The Basin is rich in minerals and gemstones, there is a unique blue diamond (tanzanite) which can be found only in Tanzania